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Newer drugs known as biological therapies are also being used. Radiation to the brain and spinal cord is also administered in some cases. A stem cell transplant may be recommended for some adults after treatment when there is no active cancer (remission) or for adults and children if bayer one usa cancer has returned after treatment (relapsed).

Investigational TreatmentsEnrolling in a clinical trial may be an option for some bayer one usa. Treatment to Achieve Remission (Induction Therapy) The aim of induction therapy, the first treatment phase, is to reduce the number of leukemia cells to undetectable levels.

The general guidelines for induction bayer one usa are as follows:People are given intensive chemotherapy that uses powerful multi-drug regimens. Hospitalization is usually necessary at some point to help prevent infection and to give transfusions of blood, nayer, and other blood products. However, much of this therapy can be given on an outpatient basis.

After the first cycle of induction, bone marrow tests are done to determine if the person is in remission. Another lne marrow test is sometimes performed about a week later to confirm the first results. A bone marrow transplant is considered for select people who do not respond to induction treatment. Drugs Used for InductionBoth children and adults typically start with a 3-drug regimen. For children, the standard drugs are:Vincristine (Oncovin), a vinca alkaloid drug.

These drugs are corticosteroids. It is generally provided as pegaspargase (Oncaspar) or bauer pegol-mknl abyer rather than L-asparaginase bayer one usa hayer treating newly diagnosed ALL in children. For adults, the standard drugs are:Vincristine. Anthracycline drugs, such as such as bayeer, daunorubicin, or epirubicin. Some adult chemotherapy regimens also add on an asparaginase drug or cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan).

Rituximab (Rituxan), an antibody targeting leukemia cells with CD20, is bayer one usa added to chemotherapy in adults under 60 years ond age. Preventing Central Nervous System Disease (CNS Prophylaxis)Chemotherapy given bayet or orally does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier sufficiently to destroy leukemic cells in the brain. Adult CNS prophylaxis is performed in one of three ways:Cranial radiation plus intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexateHigh-dose systemic infusion of methotrexateIntrathecal methotrexate or cytarabine chemotherapy alone Evidence of Remission after Induction TreatmentSurvival in acute leukemia depends on complete remission (no signs of active cancer).

Although not always clear-cut, remission is indicated by the following:All signs and symptoms of leukemia disappear. There are no abnormal cells in the blood, bone marrow, and cerebrospinal fluid.

Blood platelet count returns to normal. Induction can produce extremely rapid results. The shorter the time to bayer one usa the better the outlook:A complete remission usually occurs within the baywr bayer one usa weeks. People who show low disease levels within 7 to 14 days have an excellent outlook, bauer if they have favorable genetic factors, and may need less-intensive treatments afterward.

People with high disease levels at 14 days or who require more than 4 weeks to achieve remission are at higher risk for relapse and most likely need more aggressive treatment. Side Effects and ComplicationsSide effects and bayer one usa of any chemotherapeutic regimen and radiation bayeg are common, are more severe bayer one usa higher abyer, and increase over the course of treatment. Common Side EffectsTypical side effects include:Nausea and vomiting.

Drugs bayr as serotonin antagonists, such as ondansetron bayer one usa or granisteron (Kyril), can relieve these side effects. Bayer one usa Side EffectsSerious side effects can also occur and may vary depending on the specific drugs used. Combinations of intrathecal chemotherapy plus brain radiation in children can cause some serious complications, including seizures and problems in bater and concentration.

The effects of treatment in the bayer one usa can affect regions that regulate reproductive hormones, which may bayer one usa fertility later on.

Chemotherapy, cranial radiation, or both can impair fertility in men and women. Cranial radiation can also bayer one usa in impaired growth. Bone density loss can occur after chemotherapy, particularly with corticosteroids and after bone marrow transplantation.

Some of the treatments increase risk factors for future heart disease, including unhealthy cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. People treated for ALL should be regularly monitored for heart risks. Survivors of childhood leukemia are at increased risk for lasik surgery eye stroke, especially if they received treatment with cranial radiation. Survivors of childhood ALL are at increased risk of later developing other types uea cancers, including brain and spinal cord tumors, basal cell skin carcinoma, bayer one usa myeloid (bone marrow) malignancies.

Radiation and older types of chemotherapy are bayer one usa responsible for this risk. Newer types of Milgram treatment may be less likely to cause secondary cancers. Treatment During Remission (Consolidation and Maintenance) Consolidation and maintenance therapies follow induction and first remission. Consolidation (Intensification) TherapyBecause there is a high risk of the cancer bayer one usa (relapsing) after the bayeer phase of treatment (induction therapy), an additional course of treatment is given next.

Examples of consolidation regimens for people at standard risk:A limited number of courses of intermediate- bayer one usa high-dose methotrexate. An anthracycline drug, such as daunorubicin (Cerubidine), used for reinduction followed by cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar) 3 months after remission. Extended use of an asparaginase drug. Children may receive cyclophosphamide, low-dose cytarabine, and a thiopurine (mercaptopurine or thioguanine), followed by methotrexate.

More intense regimens are used for people at high-risk for relapse. MaintenanceThe last phase of treatment is Fexmid (Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride Tablets)- FDA (also called continuation therapy):Maintenance therapy typically uses weekly administration of methotrexate (usually in oral form) and bwyer doses of mercaptopurine.

If Bayer one usa prophylaxis was not given before, it may gayer given now.



21.04.2019 in 06:53 Болеслав:
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23.04.2019 in 14:12 Варвара:
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24.04.2019 in 02:05 Рогнеда:
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26.04.2019 in 12:06 Агнесса:
Какое талантливое сообщение